During the trip to an African area is exposed to tropical infectious diseases and natural elements of the journey itself as heat, humidity, water consumption and unsafe food and mosquitoes. That is why in these circumstances the traveler must remember the general and specific travel health recommendations that can be given by Center for International Health or from your doctor.
On the African continent, as far as health risks are concerned, should distinguish three zones: the Mediterranean or the Maghreb, the meningítico belt and sub-Saharan Africa.
In the Mediterranean basin and the Maghreb, preparing food and even the act of eating is made with hands, so hygiene is very important. To prevent diarrhea is recommended to eat freshly cooked, boiled or fried foods, drink bottled or boiled products such as coffee or tea, and brushing your teeth with bottled, boiled or disinfected water purification tablets. Therefore, avoid street foods or raw, salads, seafood or fruit peeled by third parties and ice cubes, dairy products, drinks or bottled or boiled sealed, or natural fruit juices that have not been squeezed in their presence. For its part, the Centre for International Health will appreciate vaccination against hepatitis A and typhoid.
In case of diarrhea, remember that the most important thing is to keep well hydrated by drinking plenty of fluids (2-3 liters a day), astringent diet and use oral rehydration preparations or antidiarrheal antisecretory if needed. If diarrhea was more severe with fever (≥38ºC), blood, mucus or pus in the stool should consult a doctor as soon as possible.
Meningítico belt area is known as one geographical area width from west to eastern Africa from Senegal to Ethiopia, and from Sierra Leone to Kenya. In this area, apart from intestinal diseases described above, the risk of meningitis by different strains of meningococcus is high, especially during the month of November to June or dry season. Therefore, if a traveler visits any of these areas and in that time of year probably Medical Center for International Health recommend the quadrivalent vaccine against meningitis. Turn on that area there is a risk of malaria and yellow fever, being recommended its chemoprophylaxis and vaccination respectively.
In sub-Saharan Africa as well as intestinal diseases mentioned above, the main risk is that of the insect, such as malaria, dengue and yellow fever diseases.
Malaria is a serious parasitic disease caused in this territory mainly by Plasmodium falciparum which is transmitted by the bite of a mosquito nightly habit throughout the year and in all countries. There is today an effective vaccine against it, so it is advisable to take a preventive treatment or chemoprophylaxis to prevent its development and prevent mosquito bites.
Dengue is a viral disease, usually appearing as a banal acute febrile illness, self-limited in time, which is transmitted by the bite of a mosquito daytime habit throughout the year and in all countries. In rare cases bleeding episodes may appear to be a warning sign to see a doctor immediately. There is today an effective vaccine against it, nor preventive or chemoprophylaxis treatment, so it is recommended to avoid mosquito bites throughout the day and evening, use repellents, sleep in treated mosquito nests and paracetamol if you have muscle pain, arthralgia or headache.
Yellow fever is a serious viral disease present in sub-Saharan Africa that is transmitted by the bite of a mosquito. In some of these countries its prevention by vaccination is mandatory to enter it, and will be the Centro who will advise its use, administer and issue the International Certificate of Vaccination. Among the Countries in Africa where tourists require yellow fever vaccination include Sierra Leone, Togo, Angola, Benin, Burkina-Faso, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Liberia, Mali, Niger and Gabon in West Africa. In East Africa we have Burundi and Rwanda, in Central Africa we have Central African Republic, Cong and Democratic Republic of the Congo. Once you arrive at the destination, or even sometimes for the entry visa in it, they would ask. The vaccine is effective after 24 hours or 10 days of his administration according to whether a booster or the first time he administered, and has a validity of 10 years. The International Certificate of Vaccination is not transferable, and if the traveler astray should go back to the center which issued for a duplicate.